Communication_19573Communication as a process of exchange of coherent messages is becoming a more and more necessary element to the society. The emnergence and development of means of communication is one of the most fascinating pages in the histroy of mankind. The ways and means of communication were developed gradually as people struggled to meet their needs and to improve their ways of living. In the early periods all messages were sent through messengers who went on horse back and by foot. Across the sea, communication was possible by vessels touching various ports. It was so till renaissance set in.

Confining to the area whicn represents the present Kanniyakumari district, there had been a postal system ‘Anchal’ which was much like the present departmental postal system. Raja Rama Varma during his reign over the Travancore and Cochin in 1784 reorganised this ‘Anchal’ system on a scientific basis.

The departmental postal system was introduced by about the 19th century and the opening of a post office at Nagercoil in 1865 marked the beginning of the postal service in Kanniyakumari district. However, the ‘Anchal’ system continued which the people encouraged more due to the rates being comparatively less than charged by the postal system which ultimately led to the competition between the two systems.

About 1882 at the instance of the Postmaster General, Madras, a Postal Treaty appeared to have been concluded between Travancore and the British Government tentatively for one year with a view to enable the ‘Anchal’ system reciprocate-to the Imperial Post.

The Postal department besides the agency of postal communication offers a variety of non-postal services also (viz.,) telephone, telegraph and telex service. As at present, they function as separate departments. The post offices plays a vital role in the economy of the people also, and offer postal savings and postal life insurance schemes etc.The jurisdiction of the Kanniyakumari postal division is much the same as the jurisdiction of the District Revenue Unit. There are four postaJ sub-divisions in Kanniyakumari Division and the year in which they were established is noted in brackets. They are Nagercoil East (1951), Thuckalay (1967), Kuzhithurai (1976) and Nagercoil West (1981) in the Division as in 1987 As regards the number of post offices, there are two head post offices one at Nagercoil and the other at Thuckalay, 75 Sub-post offices 30 extra departmental offices and 136 extra-departmental branch offices.

Telegraphs and Telephones: With the advent of electricity and invention of sophisticated gadgets in the field of communication speed, matching, lighting, etc. came to be imbibed in the system. In this century there has been a remarkable progress in the field of electronics with the result the radio and presently the TV and the Satellites have brought about a revolution in the system of Communications which in fact has made the world shrink. Once the interior of the U.S.S.R. was km. away from our backyard but today it is only a fraction of a second away by TV which means that we are closely joined to the people of the world.

The impact of the advancement made in this field in the district is discussed in the ensuing paragraphs.

The present Kanniyakumari district area till 1956 was served by the Telegraphs Engineering Division of Trivandrum. There were two telephone exchanges, one at Nagercoil and the other at Kuzhithurai and two Public Call Offices, one at Thuckalay and the other at Kanniyakumari.

After the merger of this area with Tamil Nadu, the then composite Postal and Telegraphs Department of the Madras Circle took over in 1961 another Telephone Exchange in Kanniyakumari and in 1963 another at Thuckalay were commissioned. The next to come up was at Bhoothapandy in 1964.

In the years that followed, the district, which had only five exchanges during the early sixties, multiplied into 26 Telephone Exchanges and the Departmental Telegraph offices went up by two. Also seven long distance public Telephones and 49 combined offices in the District have come up thereby making the network complete. Taluk-wise break up of the Telecom installations in the district is furnished in the annexure.

The Telephone exchange functioning at Nagercoil with 3000 lines MAX. I am the largest Telephone exchange to speak of in the District. Next is the Telephone exchange at Kuzhithurai which has now a 300 lines MAX.II. The district was brought under the Telex map with the commissioning of a Telex exchange in 1982 at Nagercoil which has made Nagercoil gain both way linkages with 108 foreign countries. Subscriber Trunk Dialling facilities are available in Nagercoil, Kanniyakumari and Kuzhithurai which can link Madras, Bombay, Calcutta, New Delhi and 400 other cities in the country which are having National Subscriber Dialling (NSD) facilities. Also for these three exchanges in the district, International Subscriber Dialling (ISD) facility is available. This facility is extended to 85 countries in the world. In respect of the other state capitals there is National Subscriber Dialling. For the purpose of routing these inter urban calls; Nagercoil has been connected to the Madurai Trunk Automatic exchange, a primary switching centre, through an underground co-axial cable laid between Madurai and Trivandrum. A carrier system has been installed between Nagercoil and Kanniyakumari. A Co-axial station also functions at Nagercoil. The department has proposed to extend STD facilities to Thuckalay also. There is a Telex PCO at Nagercoil and three STD PCOs, one each at Nagercoil, Kuzhithurai and Kanniyakumari.

To better communication facilities in rural areas the district has been divided into two Unit Fee Zones (UFZ) viz., Nagercoil and Kuzhithurai. Nagercoil UFZ serves the taluks of Agasthiswaram and Thovalai, while Kuzhithurai zone serves the taluks of Kalkulam and Vilavancode. Under this facility, direct connection from Nagercoil is possible with Kanniyakumari, Azhagappapuram, Eathamozhi, Ramapuram, Swamithope and Thengampudur of Agasthiswaram taluk, with Bhoothapandy, Aralvoimozhi and Thadikarankonam of Thovalai Taluk. Group dialling among these stations are also available except between Bhoothapandy- Kanniyakumari and Aralvoimozhi-Eathamozhi. Likewise, Kuzhithurai, which is headquarters of Vilavancode Taluk, is connected to Painkulam, Kaliyakavilai, Arumanai, Kulasekaram, Karingal and Kattathurai with group dialling facilities among them. Point to point STD facility is available between Nagercoil and Muttom.

For effective communication facility, a higher order Co-axial system known as “12 MHZ’ has been sanctioned and it is likely to be commissioned before the 7th Five Year Plan, with a dropping station, at Kuzhithurai.Interstice System has been planned for Thuckalay so that a stable medium is made available for introduction of STD/ISD facility.

Telegraphs : There are two telegraph offices, one at Nagercoil and another at Kuzhithurai and 49 morse working combined offices (37 at Nagercoil DTO and 12 at Kuzhithurai DTO) in the district For speedy transmission of the messages to stations outside the State, ‘Store and Forward’ telegraph facility is available in the Nagercoil telegraph office. This facility is available for places outside the State and within the State as well. At Nagercoil and Kuzhithurai Telegraph offices for speedy transmission of the messages meant for important stations within Tamil Nadu State, “Store and Forward Gentex” facility is in use.

A Speech Circuit Communication System connecting the major irrigation canals like Kodayar (Pechiparai Dam) Chittar Patnamkal canal (Chittar Dam I & II) to the P.W.D. offices at Nagercoil has been evolved and is in service.

The Telecom network is equipped with 5595 lines of which 5085 lines are now functioning. The number of telephones in use is 5607. Besides internal plants of the 26 Telephone Exchanges, three Trunk Exchanges,carrier stations and 20 lines Telex Exchanges at Nagercoil the Telephone Local Trunk and Telegraphs alignment all put together measure 1616 km. in length and carry 13109 km. of wire in this district. Underground cable laid in the district for the local telephone system is about 311 km. in cable length and 34426 km. in conductor length. The density of Telephone per 1000 is 3.6.

The entire three Trunk Exchanges namely at Nagercoil, Kuzhithurai and Thuckalay handle about 2600 trunk calls a day. On an average000 metered local calls including STD originating in this district per year fetch an average revenue of about Rs.2.05 crores per annum. The capital investment of the Department on Telecom assets in this district during 1986 is about Rs.10/- crores. As in 1987, about 513 personnel were working in the telecom department.

The details of Telephone exchanges, phonocom offices, etc. functioning in the district are furnished below (taluk wise)

Agastiswaram taluk

Exchanges Equipped Capacity
1. Nagercoil MAX I 3000
2. Eathamozhi MAX III 90
3. Azhagappapuram MAX III 90
4. Kanniyakumari MAX II 200
5. Ramapuram MAX III 35
6. Thengampudur MAX III 45
7. Swamythoppu MAX III 90
8. Muttom MAX III 90
Phonocom Offices in Agastiswaram Taluk
1. Irulappapuram
2. Nagercoil Krishnankoil
3. Nagercoil Catherine Booth Hospital
4. Nagercoil Nesamani Nagar
5. Ramapuram
6. Vazhukkamparai
7. Variyoor
8. Devakulam











South Surangudi




South Tamaraikulam


Jy^nes Town







Long Distance Public Telephones

Kumarapuram, Thoppur



Stations having NSD and ISD facilities




Departmental Telegraph Office

1. Nagercoil
Morse working Combined offices
1. Agastliwaram
2. Mylady
3, Suchindram
4. Kanniyakumari- STD PT facility available
5. Azhagappapuram
6. Kottaram
7. Nagercoil Town
8. Nagorcoll Collectorate
9. Nagorcoll Industrial Estate
10. Kottar
11. Puthalam
12. Eathamo/hl
13. Vadasery
14. Vettoornlm adam

Vilavancode Taluk


Exchange        Equipped         capacity

1. Kuzhithurai MAX II 300 lines
2. Arumanai MAX III 90 lines
3. Lower Kodayar MAX III 25 lines
4. Kollencodo MAX III 90 lines
5. Palnkularn MAX III 90 lines
8. Kaliakkavllal MAX III 90 lines



Phonocom Offices in Vilavancode Taluk








Thuthur Pudukkadai


S.T. Mangad








Departmental Telegraph Office

Kuzhithurai – STD PT facility available.

Long Distance Public Telephones




Phonocom Offices in Vilavancode Taluk








Thuthur Pudukkadai


S.T. Mangad








Departmental Telegraph Office

Kuzhithurai – STD PT facility available.

Long Distance Public Telephones




Morse using Combined Offices








Thovalai Taluk

Exchange Equipped capacity
1. Bhoothapandy MAX III 90 lines
2. Aralvoimozhi MAX III 90 lines
3. Keeriparai MAX III 35 lines
4. Thadikarankonam MAX III 25 lines


Morse Working combined Offices




Phonocom offices in Thovalai Taluk

Chenbagaraman Pudur












PalkulamThadikarankonam Kalkulam Taluk
Exchange Equipped Capacity
  1. Thuckalay
MAX III 200 Lines
2.’ Kulasekaram MAX III 300 Lines
  1. Kattathurai
MAX III 90 Lines
  1. Karingal
MAX III 90 Lines
  1. Neyyoor
MAX III 135 Lines
  1. Aloor
MAX III 35 Lines
  1. Colachel
MAX III 90 Lines
  1. Manakkavilai
MAX III 90 Lines
Long Distance Public Telephones
  1. Mekkamandapam
  1. Maniyankuzhi


Morse Working Combined Offices





Kalkulam Taluk

Padmanabnpuram Fort





Friday MarRat












Neyyoor Fort

Colachel Fort

Radio and T.V. Stations: A Local Radio Station, first of its kind in India, has been functioning at Nagercoil since October 30, 1984. Its studio and transmitter are located in Nagercoil town. This is different from the Regional Network of Radio Stations, as it is basically utility service-oriented and serves only a small area, i.e. Kanniyakumari district only. Its accent is on handling the local problems extensively. Comprising predominantly field based programmes, the Local Radio adopts a down-to-earth character and establishes a two-way communication system between the listeners and the extension agencies of various Government departments. Apart from providing opportunities to district groups in the community to present their own programmes affording scope for the articulation of local talent and views, the Local Radio Station organises a number of ‘help-line’ services to the listeners in employment, education, housing, law and family problems and the local aspirations thus will find fulfilment through the local radio.

A T.V. Relay centre with a capacity of 100 watt transmitter power was formally commissioned here on September 5, 1987. The Low Power Transmitter is supplied by G.C.E.L. and the output power is 100 watts. This Relay Centre covers a distance upto 18 km. At present only Delhi programmes are relayed. Now the Doordarshan Department has arranged to relay Tamil programmes from D.D.K. Madras for 90 minutes from 15th August 1988 onwards. The transmitter is operating on Channel-6 frequency.


Railways: Railways link the entire country and afford the best and sure transportation whether it be passenger or goods.

There were no rail routes in Kanniyakumari district till 1979 but this district was connected only by two National Highways (i.e.) from Tirunelveli and Trivandrum.

To cope with the pouring passenger traffic, to be more specific, – tourists, the need for connecting this part of the country with the rest of the country by rail was keenly felt and hence the present railway link to Kanniyakumari district.

Length of Rail routes (points connected and important Railway Stations) : A length of 56 km. broad guage line connecting Kuzhithurai West Halt Station and Kavalkinaru Halt Station on the Main line between Tirunelveli and Trivandrum Central section and 16 km. of Branch line between Nagercoil junction and Kanniyakumari section serves the Kanniyakumari district. The stations served by these Railway lines are indicated below:-Main lineBranchlineKuzhithurai West Halt Kuzhithurai Palliyadi Halt Eranniel Viranialur Nagercoil Town Nagercoil Junction Thovalai Halt Aralvoimozhi Kavalkinaru HaltThe rail route from Kuzhithurai west to Nagercoil junction and line from Nagercoil junction to Kanniyakumari was openedThe section from Nagercoil Junction to Kavalkinaru wasApril 1981.

The following are the trains running in Kanniyakumari District


Trivandrum Central – Kanniyakumari Passenger

Nagercoil Junction – Trivandrum Central Passengei

Trivandrum Central – Nagercoil Junction Passenger

377                              Trivandrum Central – Nagercoil Junction Passenger

378                              Bombay VT                –           Kanniyakumari Express

81/82                           Nagercoil Junction      –           Kanniyakumari Passenger

391/392                       Kanniyakumari            –           Nagercoil Junction Passenger

394                              Nagercoil Junction      – Tirunelveli passenger


381/386                       Tirunelveli                   – Trivandrum Central passenger

The Him Sagar Express introduced from 3 August 1984 is the first direct train service to link the country’s northern border the Himalayas and the southern tip, Kanniyakumari.

Airport: Kanniyakumari district is not linked by air. The nearest airport is at Trivandrum which is 85 km. from Nagercoil.

Roadways: The network of roadways of a country is as essential as the arterial system to the human body. The roads in a big way facilitate advancement in the economy of a country and they simultaneously facilitate communication.

In the matter of surface transport, they are almost equal to the railways which connect other parts of the country through its large railway network system. These two transports are not parallel but inter-dependent.

The Madras-Kanniyakumari Highway joins the Kanniyakumari- Trivandrum road near Aralvoimozhi which passes through Nagercoil touching other important places and terminates at Trivandrum in KeralaState covering a distance of 62.4 km. from Aralvoimozhi to Kerala border, The views on either side of this road can never fail to attract the travellers.

Tracing the history of a regular system of road communication in the Kanniyakumari area it dates back to 1860 and the credit goes to Sir Madhava Rao, the then Dewan of Travancore-Cochin State. The work part of it was executed by the Engineering Department which was set up during his period. However, these roads were primarily intended for the movement of troops, but in the days to come it accommodated civilian traffic also. During the rule of Rama Varma (1758-98 A.D.) a good road 8 was laid between Kanniyakumari-Kodungalaur (Crangalur).

Road Transport Services: Roads play a vital part in economic development, opening up remote area, stimulating the growth of agriculture as well as industry, besides facilitating communication. As an essential element of the transport infrastructure, they contribute, along with the railways, the nation’s lifeline.

The road network in Kanniyakumari district consits of National highways, State highways, District roads and Rural roads. The trunk road from Madras to Nagercoil joins the Kanniyakumari- Trivandrum road near Aralvoimozhi and passes through important places over a distance of 62.4 km. and finally enters Kerala State. The road from Kanniyakumari to Trivandrum is one of the busiest roads in the country.

The erstwhile State of Travancore-Cochin adopted a policy of nationalisation of transport and as a result the Transport Department was formed in the state in 1938. Routes between Trivandrum and Kanniyakumari (via) Nagercoil and Colachel were the first to be taken up for nationalisation. After the reorganisation of States in 1956, the bus transport service in Kanniyakumari district was taken over by the State Transport Department of the then Madras State.

The important private bus operators in the district during 1960’s were Messrs. Pioneer Motors (P) Limited, P.T.S. Motor Service and Sri Ganapathy Motor Service at Nagercoil and Messrs. R.K.V. Motors and Timbers (P) Limited and P.C. Motor Service at Marthandam.

1 Mettukadai to Thoduvetty (1967) 



























2 Thoduvetty to Thiruparappu (1967)
3 Nagercoil to Colachel (1967)
4 Thoduvetty to Kaliyal (1967)
5 Nagercoil to Thiruvarambu (1967)
6 Nagercoil to Kurumbanai (1967)
7 Thoduvetty to Alancholai (1968)
8 Thuckalay to Kulasekharam (1968)
9%/f Nagercoil to Manakudy (1970)
10u Thoduvetty to Thengapattinam (1970)

Subsequently ail bus routes in the district have been nationalised and the Kamryakumari district is now a totally nationalised area.1State Transport Corporations: The nationalised transport activities in the district were managed by the Kattabomman Transport Corporation with bead quarters at Tirunefveli from 1 January 1974 to 31 March 1983. Subsequently this was taken over by the Nesamony Transport Corportation Limited formed on 1 April 1983. This Corporation provides bus facilities to the entire Kanniyakumari district and operate buses to important places outside the district and State as well such as Madurai, Tiranefaef, Tuticorfn, Tiruchendur, Papansam, Trivandrum, Kottarakkara, etc. This Corporation with a fleet of 471 buses operate 436 services and Handles on an average 1.41 lakhs passengers every day.

ThiruvaJiif/ar Transport Corporation Limited: Thiruvalluvar Transport Corporation operates services to and fro from Kanniyakumari to places wrthin the State and outside as well. Retiring rooms and cloak room facilities are available at Kanniyakumari bus station.13 Reservation facilities are also available at Nagercoil, Kanniyakumari, Marthandam, KaJiyakkaviJai and Cdachel.

Highv’ays and Rural Works:   ThisDepartment is incharge ofplanning, design, construction and maintenance of roads and bridges in amu Madu, besides it offers technical guidance to the Panchayat Unions in respect of Rural Works programme. This department chalks out plans for road development and implements them.View of newly built bus terminal at KanniyakumariLength of roads in id pi differ«»»it categories ; By 1962, the total road network In the distance 1*12*1.2 km and it increased to 3110 km. during 1980-81.[1]. Roads maintained by llm Highway and Rural Works Department as on 1 April 1988 (length In km,). Classification          T&tdl Surfaced Unsurfaced of road            tiflfith  C,C B.T, W.B.M. earthernState Highway      43 JO   48.90   -Major DistrictRoads  274.3012.20            262.10

Other District

Roads. 671,80 567.40 2.90     1.20

Roads maintained by local bodies:-17

Classifi- Total cation length(kms.)

(V (2)

C.C. B.T.(in km.) (3) (4) Met.(5) (6)
PanchayatcUnion roads 1231 Panchayat –

roads 699

1 53 7 50 769133 408509
Total 1930 8 103 902 917
Schemes undertaken by the State Highways Department
(a) Schemes completed Cost
  1. Construction of a bridge across Kuzhithurai river at KM. 1/6 of Marthandam Panachamoodu Road.
  1. Reconstruction of the bridge at Km. 1/8 of Eraniel-Muttom Road
  1. Construction of a bridge at Km. 2/8 of Kumerankudy road
  1. Construction of a Km. o/4 of North Thamaraikulam Road.
  1. Widening Mondaikadu Road Km. o/o -2/6
  1. Construction of Union Staff quarters at Thiruvattar


Under R.L.E.G.P. sponsored by the Government of India, 25 works were completed. A total length of 40.2 km. of roads has been constructed and an expenditure of Rs.70.81 lakh has been incurred generating 4.29 lakhs of labour mandays.(RS. IN LAKHS)

Reconstructing the weak bridge across Valliar

near Manavalakurichy at KM. 16/2 of Nagercoil Rajakkamangalam-Colachel Road.           27.50

Reconstruction of the weak bridge across Paraliar near Thiruvattar at KM. 5/6 of

Marthandam-Pechiparai road. 33.00

Construction of a submersible bridge across Kodayar river at KM. 4/1 of

Kulasekaram-Thiruvarambu road.       14.00

Reconstruction of the bridge across Mullaiyar

at KM.5/2 of Kuzhithurai-Alencholai Road.  11 -20




Operated between (3) No.of buses(4) Route length in km. (5) No. of Single trips (6) Important places (via) (?)
1 653 Velankanni Trivandrum 2 568 2 Nagai-Tan j ore-Mad urai -Nagerco* l-Thoduvetty
2 654 Madurai Trivandrum 8 305 16 Thirunelveli-Nagercoil-Marthandam
3 660 Coimbatore Trivandrum 2 533 2 Palani-Madurai-Thirunelveli-Nagercoil-Thoduvetty
4 663 Trivandrum - Hosur 2 705 2 Nagercoil—Thirunelveli-Madurai—Karur-Salem- Dharmapuri
5 669 Erode Trivandrum 2 513 2 Karur-Dindugal-Madurai-Nagercoil
6 670 Pondy Trivandrum 2 660 2 Neyveli-Kumbakonam-Pudukottai-Nagercoil-Thoduvetty.
7 590 Madras Trivandrum 8 752 8 Villuppuram-Trichy-Madurai-Thirunelveli-Nagercoil

Reconstruction of weak bridge at KM. 26/2 of

Category of Transport (V 1980(2) 1981(3) 1982(4) 1983(5) 1984(6) 198500
1 Taxis 643 690 760 781 790 823
2 Autorickshaws 445 465 477 480 510 524
3 Automobiles (Non-Transport) 4985 5100 5184 5280 5310 5460
4 Vehicles under the control of the Municipal authorities 9 9 9\ 9 9 9
5 Town Buses 158 163 167 175 186 207
6 Mofussil Buses 59 61 61 58 62 64
7 Goods Vehicles-Public carrier 632 705 791 885 963 1078
8 Goods Vehictes-Private carrier 41 49 55 47 56 66

Balamore road near Keeripparai.        12.50


* Regional Transport Officer, Kanniyakumari District, Nagercoil, Report dated 18 July 1986


Source: General Manager, T.T.C. Madras, Report dated 5 December 1987.


Waterways and Canals : The district is endowed with good rivers. Paraliyar, Valliyar, Kodayar and Pazhayar are the important rivers. In olden days when good roadways were few the people depended mostly on river transport.

In the District there are lagoons and backwaters. The backwaters are locally called as ’Kayals’. The lagoons and backwaters are inlets from the sea, which run parallel to the cost. The lagoons, though not deep enough throughout are however navigable for boats. While azhis are permanent outlets, pozhils are only temporary outlets.

A Kayal near Manakudi in Agastiswaram taluk and a small lagoon in Painkulam village near Thengapattanam to speak of are the two waterways which benefit the people.

As regards canals, navigation facilities are available in the Anantha /ictoria Marthandan Canal known as the A.V.M. canal which runs from Trivandrum to Thengapattanam covering a distance of 21 km. of which IS km., the stretch between Thengapattanam and Neerodai, lies within he Tamil Nadu State. Ferry service here is run by private agencies.

Travellers Bungalows :24 Travellers Bungalows are at the following p laces










Inspection Bungalows are at Kanniyakumari, Radhapuram, Thiruvattar, Colachel, Puliyoorkurichi, Pechipparai, Sivalogam and Cheruppaloor.

Tourist bungalows are at Balamore and Kanniyakumari. There is a Project House and a Rest shed at Kuzhithurai.

Guest Houses : There is a Guest House in Kanniyakumari under the control of P.W.D. The Government of Kerala also maintains a Guest House here by name Kerala House.

Rest Houses :  In         addition           there    are       rest      houses also here. Tosupplement, a number of private boarding and lodging houses and pilgrim quarters have come up to meet the demands of the visiting tourists. At Thadikkarankonam, Aramboly, Thirpparappu and Kanniyakumari, there are camp sheds.


V, Nagam Alya, The Travancore State Manual, Tnvandrum: 1906, Vol.3.

Data received from the Senior Supdt of Post Offices, Kanniyakumari

Division, Nagercoil, dated 4 February 1987

Senior Superintendent of Post Offices, Nagercoil, Report dated21 December 1988.

General Manager, Telecommunications, Tamil Nadu circle, Madras -Reports dated 3 September 1986 and 18 November 1987.

Deputy Director. Audience Research AM India Radio, Madras – Report dated26 September 1988.

Asst. Engineer. Doordarshan Relay Centre, Nagercoil, Report dated15 July 1988.

General Manager, Southern Railway, Headquarters Office, Madras – Report dated 19 April 1988.

  1. Nagam Aiya, the Travancore State Manual, Trivandrum: 1906,Vol.3.p.218.

Census of India, 1961, District Census Handbook, Kanniyakumari, 1966. Vol.IX.G.O.Ms.No.2007, ILH, dated 17 June 1967.

Regional Transport Officer, Nagercoil, Report dated 20 April 1988.

Managing Director, Nesamony Transport Corporation Limited, Nagercoil,Report dated 31 July1986.

General Manager, Thiruvalluvar Transport Corporation, Madras – Report

Techno-Economic Survey of Kanniyakumari District-1986, Small IndustriesService Institute, Government of India, Madras, pp. 16-17.

Chief Engineer, N.H., Madras, Report dated 6 October 1986.

Chief Engineer Highways and Rural Works, Madras, dated 3 May 1988

Regional Transport Officer, Nagercoil, Report dated 16 July 1977.

18a. Regional Transport Officer, Nagercoil, Report dated 20 April 1988.

State Port Officer, Madras – Report dated 12 October 1987.

Director of Lighthouse and Lightships, Madras: Reports dated 23 July 1986and 13 January 1988.

The Chief Engineer (H&RW.) Madras, Reports dated 21 April 1987 andMay 1988.

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