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Local-Administration-in-KanyakumariKautitya compares a Government lo a chanot and the various departments to its wheats and says that wheats cannot move a chariot Hence, from ancient times it has been fait that various machineries are necessary to run the Government smoothly.

The area of the present Kanniyakumari district had been under the sceptres of the Ayts, the Pandyas the Choias, tie Nayaks and the Venael kings, The remarkable aspect is that it had been under monarchical rule upto 1949 (i.e.) till the accession of Travancora State to Indian Union,

Gantral Administration in Ancient days: In ancient days as in other parts of South India or we can say even the World, hereditary monarchy was the principal form of Government. Disputed successions and av»i wars were not unknown; the king was an autocrat but the advices of the ministers, poets and other eldermen of the royal family prevaite 1 Tha sphere of the State’s activity was, however, limited and in a society where respects for customs was deep-rooted, even the most perverse of autocrats could not have done much harm; indeed it must be said that the general impression left on the mind by the literature of the age is one of contentments on the part of the people, who were proud of their kings and loyal to them

The king was regarded as a model citizen He was, therefore, obliged to maintain high standards; in other words, he had to follow the maxim ‘Ceaser’s wife should be above suspicion*. The subjects placed the sovereign next to the Lord. Liberal patronage, tolerance towards religion gmd encouragement of arts and letters, were the essence of the king’s rule. The kings held a daily court. There were also gradations among kings Victory of a king against leven kings lent him a superior status, which the victor marked by wearinggarland made out of the Crowns of the Sevan vanquished rulers. The powerful king was expected to undertake a Dig Vijayn’ which meant expeditions to conquer in all directions.

Administration: As an administrator, he was assisted by “Sutram” which comprised most of Brahmins. These ‘Sutram’, advisedthe King on general administrative matters. Besides, the king held a Sabha or Manram (the highest court of justice) in the capital.Tamilnadu and Venadu, during the 12th and 13th centuries and Indeed for a long time to follow, there were local assemblies and temple Sabhas, which managed the day-to-day affairs in their respective fields. About those, the inscriptions at Vellayini of 1196 AD, at Trivandrum of 1209 AD, and at Manalikkara of 1235 AD.

In early times, each ruler maintained a well equipped army. The head of the army was called ‘Enadi’ (captain). The army was four type traditional one. (i.e.) Chariot, Elephants, Cavalry and Infantry. The weaponrywas swords, bows and arrows, Javelins, spears etc. The drum and the conch were employed in the field, for signalling and to call the soldiers. The war drum of a ruler was held sacred.

General Administration of Kanniyakumari District during Venad rulers:     Thepresent Kanniyakumari District area as part of theTravancore State had been under the rule of the Venad kings from the 12th century AD onwards. Travancore refers to ‘Thiruvithankodu’ now an insignificant village in the present Kanniyakumari District, which was the capital of the Venad kings in the early period of their rule. Later, Padmanabhapuram, now the head quarters of a Revenue Division, served as the capital of the Venad rulers, until it was shifted to Trivandrum.

The ‘British Raj’ and the formation of the Madras Presidency, in no way disintegrated the Travancore State, which was due to the Kings maintaining cordial relationship with the British. Though Travancore was an independent Princely State, the legislations of the Slate were almost the same as that of the Madras Presidency, except for certain modifications here and there.

King Ravi Varma, who ascended the throne in 1684 AD. Introduced some effective administrative measures, such as curtailment of the powers of the local chiefs by appointing Special Revenue Agents (i.e.) the Sarvathikaryakars, in the various parts of the country. The jurisdictions of the Sarvathikaryakars were more or less the same of the present Collectors of the Districts.

During the rule of Marthanda Varma, a Revenue Settlement was made. The district unit was divided into “Mandapathumvathukkar (similar to the present taluk) and this was further split up into Kelvis. The former was under the control         ofan officer called ‘Karyakar’ and     latterunderarvathikar Cot. Munroe, a British Officer, was the Dewan of Travancore State from AD 1810 to AD 1814. He brought about major changes in the Revenue and General Administration of the State. He established taluks and created the posts of Tahsildars. He renamed the ‘Kelvis’ as ‘Pakuthy’ they continued to be under the administrative control of Parvathikars.

After the accession of Travancore to the Indian Union in 1949, the State came under the administration of a popular ministry, but the administrative setupwas as before.The Kanniyakumari      district wasformed in 1956, after            which agradualchange in the administrationwasbrought about, enabling it to fall in line with the rest of the districts in Tamil Nadu State.

The Collector: The District Collector, as the representative of the Government in the district, occupies the central role in district administration the role of the Collector has undergone several changes. The nature, content and priorities of work have also been changing from time to time. His style of working has also changed. Authoritarian postures are resented. Apart from his ability to co-ordinate all developmental activities in the district and to control and direct the revenue staff towards efficient performance, the Collector is able to get the co-operation of the people and their leaders in all spheres of Government activity. The increase in population and urgency to provide minimum needs to the people, the pressure on land and water, demand for goods and services out-stripping availability, law and order problems, increased responsibility to protect and uplift the weaker sections of the people, co-ordination and management of all welfare, development and regulatory functions, have all made the work of the Collector difficult and complex. The Collector is constantly under pressure. Very often, Collector moves from one crisis to another. He is obliged to intervene and use his position and influence in all matters which are not his direct responsibility. His priorities have changed. All items of revenue work are largely the direct responsibility of the District Revenue Officer. The District Collector no doubt, has overall responsibility, but the level of performance of revenue work, dependsto alarge extent on the working relationship, which exists between the District Collector and the District Revenue Officer.

The Tamil Nadu Government have taken specific measures to redress the grievances of the people. Gone are the days, when the petitioners waited at the Government offices for hours unattended to and now the initiative rests with the officials where the Collector and his subordinates are available at the headquarters to receive petitions and hear the grievances of the public. Besides, there is Mass Contact Programme (Manu Needhi Thittam) during which the officials make themselves available to the citizen in specified venue and time. This is adhered to by the Collector and all the officers of the Government. The presence of. Otherofficer at the time of holding Mass Contact Programme helps the Collector to make on the spot enquiries to redress the grievances of the public. Every Monday is set apart as “Grievances Day” on which petitions are directly received from the people by the officials.

Kanniyakumari district consists of two Revenue Divisions (viz., Nagercoil and Padmanabhapuram, each headed by a Sub-Collector or Revenue Divisional Officer. The Nagercoil Revenue Division consists of two taluks (i.e) Agasthiswaram with its headquarters at Nagercoil and Thovalai with its headquarters at Boothapandi. The Padmanabhapuram Revenue Division consists of two taluks (i.e) Kalkulam with its headquarters at Thuckalay and Vilavancode with its Headquarters at Kuzhithurai. These taluks are administered by Tahsildars with the assistance of Revenue Inspectors at Firka level and Village Administrative Officers at Village level.

It should be mentioned that right from the inauguration of the district, there have been full-time Village Officers, as in erstwhile Travancore and Cochin State.

District Level Officers: The following is the Departmental wise list of officers, who assist the Collector, in the General Administration of the district

Revenue Department. -District Revenue Officer at Nagercoil.

Senior Regional Manager, Tamil Nadu Civil Supplies Corporation, Nagercoil.3 Personal Assistants (General) to the Collector, Nagercoil. a Personal Assistant (Accounts) to the Collector, Nagercoil.

Sub-Collector, Nagercoil.

Revenue Divisional Officer, Padmanabhapuram.

District Supply Officer, Nagercoil.

District Backward Classes Welfare Officer, Nagercoil.

District Adi-Dravidar Welfare Officer, Nagercoil.

Assistant Commissioner (Excise), Nagercoil.

Agricultural Income Tax Officer, Grade-I, Nagercoil.

Agricultural Income Tax Officer, Grade-ll. Nagercoil.

Assistant Commissioner (Agricultural Income-Tax) Grade-I, Nagercoil

Regional Manager, TASMAC, Ltd., Nagercoil.

Tahsildar, Vilavancode.

Tahsildar, Kalkulam.

Tahsildar, Agasthiswaram.

Tahsildar, Thovalai.

Taluk Supply Officer, Vilavancode.

Taluk Excise Officer, Kalkulam.

Taluk Excise Officer, Vilavancode,

Taluk Excise Officer, Agasthiswaram.

Taluk Excise Officer, Thovalai.

Assistant Public Prosecutor, Nagercoil.

II Rural Development and Local Administration Department

Project Officer, D.R.D.A., Nagercoil.

Personal Assistant (Panchayat Development) to the Collector,Nagercoil.

Personal Assistant (Chief Minister’s Nutritious Noon MealsProgramme) to the Collector, Nagercoil.

Divisional Developmer, Officer Nagercoil.

Divisional Development Officer, Padmanabhapuram.

Panchayat Union Commissioner, Melpuram.

Panchayat Union Commissioner, Munchirai.

Panchayat Union Commissioner, KIlliyoor.

Panchayat Union Commissioner, Thuckalay

Panchayat Union Commissioner, Thiruvattar,

Panchayat Union Commissioner, Thovalai

Panchayat Union Commissioner, Kurunthankodu .

Panchayat Union Commissloner, Rajakkamangalam.

Panchayat Union Commissioner, , Agasthiswaram.

Panchayat Union Commissioner, Nagarcoll.

Executive Officer, Kanniyakumari Township, Kannyakumari.

District Savings Officer, Nagercoil,

Commissioner of Municipality, Nagercoil,

Commissioner of Municipality, Padmanabhapuram.

Commissioner of Municipality, Kuzhithurai.

Commissioner of Municipality, Colachal,

Local Fund and Audit Department

Assistant Examiner, Local Fund Accounts, Nagercoil.

Department of State Trading Scheme.

The Inspector, State Trading Scheme, Nagercoil,

Department of Information and Public Relations.

Information and Public Relations Officer, Nagercoil.

Department of Industries and Commerce. The General Manager, District Industrial Conlte, Nagercoil.The Assistant Director of Industries, (Nagercoil.

 

 

GENERAL ADMlNtSTRATIOJt

Assistant Director of Industries. Nagercoil.The Secretary, Kanniyakumari GovernmentSociety, Vadasery.Department of Education.

Chief Educational Officer, Nagercofl.

The District Educational Officer, Thuckalay

The District Educational Officer, Nagercoil

The Inspectress of Girl’s School, Nagercoil

District Project Officer, Office of the Ch ef Educafkx Nagercoil.

Regional Inspectress of Physical Education Mager District Adult Education Officer, Nagercoil.

Deputy Inspector of Schools, Nagercoil.

Deputy Inspector of Schools, Thuckalay

Deputy Inspector of Schools, Rajakkamangalam

Deputy Inspector of Schools, Colachel,

Deputy Inspector of Schools, MunchfiraL

Deputy Inspector of Schools, Karungal.

Deputy Inspector of Schools, Thiruvattar.

Deputy Inspector of Schools, Kuzhithurai.

Assistant Educational Officer, Melpuram.

Assistant Educational Officer, Munchirai.

Assistant Educational Officer, Killiyoor.

Assistant Educational Officer, Thuckalay.

Assistant Educational Officer, Thiruvattar,

Assistant Educational Officer, Thovalai.

Assistant Educational Officer, Kurunthankodu

Assistant Educational Officer, Rajakkamangalam

Assistant Educational Officer, Agasthiswaram.

VIII. Department of Agriculture . Joint Director of Agriculture, Nagercoil.

Deputy Director of Agriculture (Farmers Training Centre),Thirupathisaram.

Assistant Director of Agriculture (Training and Visit), Nagercoil,

Assistant Director of Agriculture (Training and Visit), Thuckalay.

Assistant Director of Agriculture (Training and Visit), Kuzhithurai,

The Assistant Crop Specialist (Paddy) Paddy Experiment Sub-

Station, Thirupathisaram.The Assistant Executive Engineer (Agricultural Engineering) Soil

Conservation Scheme, Nagercoil.

The Assistant Soil Chemist, Soil Testing Laboratory Edalakudy,Nagercoil.

Assistant Director of Agriculture (Seed Centre), Nagercoil.

Assistant Director of Agriculture (Seed Centre), Thuckalay.

Assistant Director of Agriculture (Oil Seeds), Nagercoil.

Assistant Director of Agriculture (Training and Visit), Nagercoil.

Assistant Director of Horticulture, Nagercoil.

Secretary, Kanniyakumari Market Committee, Nagercoil.

Co-operative Department.

Joint Registrar of Co-operative Societies , Nagercoil.

District Co-operative Audit Officer, Nagercoil.

Deputy Registrar of Co-operative Societies, Thuckalay.

Project Officer (NABARD & IF), Nagercoil.

Commercial Taxes Department.

Assistant commissioner, Commercial Taxes, Nagercoil.

Commercial Tax Officer, Nagercoil (Town).

Deputy Commercial Tax Officer, Nagercoil (Rural).

Deputy Commercial Tax Officer, Thuckalay.

Deputy Commercial Tax Officer, Kuzhithurai

Deputy Commercial Tax Officer, Nagercoil. (Town Junction)

Labour Department.

Assistant Commissioner of Labour (Conciliation), Nagercoil.

Inspector of Plantations, Nagercoil.

Deputy Inspector of Labour, Nagercoil.

Deputy Inspector of Labour (Minimum Wages), Nagercoil.

Assistant Inspector of Labour-I, Nagercoil.

Assistant Inspector of Labour-II, Nagercoil.

Assistant Inspector of Labour-III, Nagercoil.

Assistant Inspector of Labour-I, Thuckalay.

Assistant Inspector of Labour-II, Thuckalay.

Assistant Inspector of Labour, Marthandam.

Medical Officer (Plantation), Nagercoil.

Department of Fisheries.

Superintending Engineer, Fishing Harbour Project Circle, Nagercoil.

Assistant Director of Fisheries, Nagercoil.

Assistant Director of Fisheries (Inshore Fishing Station),Kanniyakumari.

Assistant Director of Fisheries (Fishing Training Centre), Colachel.

Chief Executive officer, Fish Farmers Development Agency, Nagercoil.

Executive Engineer, Chinnamuttom Fishing Harbour Division, II, Nagercoil.

Assistant Executive Engineer, Fishing Harbour Sub-Division-I, Nagercoil.

Assistant Executive Engineer, Fishing Harbour Sub-Division – II, Chinnamuttom Road, Kanniyakumari.

Assistant Executive Engineer, Fishing Harbour Sub-Division – III, Kanniyakumari.

Assistant Executive Engineer, Fishing Harbour Sub-Division – 1V Kanniyakumari.

Forest Department

District Forest Officer, Kanniyakumari Division, Nagercoil.

Divisional Forest Officer, Cloves Plantation Division, Nagercoil.

Assistant Conservator of Forests, Forest Protection Squad, Nagercoil

Highways and Rural Works

Divisional Engineer, Highways and Rural Works, Nagercoil.

Divisional Engineer, (H) Rural Road, Nagercoil

AssistantDivisionalEngineer,                          HighwaysandRuralWorks,Nagercoil.

 

Assistant Divisional Engineer

Assistant Divisional Engineer

Assistant Divisional Engineer

Assistant Divisional Engineer

Assistant Divisional Engineer

Assistant Divisional Engineer

Assistant Divisional Engineer

Assistant Divisional Engineer

Assistant Divisional Engineer

Assistant Divisional Engineer

Assistant Divisional Engineer

N.R.E.P.Sub-Division,Thuckalay.

Thovalai at Bhoothapandy. Nagercoil.

(H) R.R., Thuckalay.

(H) Investigation, Nagercoil.

(H) N.H. Sub-Division, Nagercoil.

(H &RW), Nagercoil.

(H&RW), Kuzhithurai.

(H &RW), Thuckalay.

(H) NREP Sub-Division, Nagercoil.

RLEGP Sub-Division, Nagercoil.

 

 

 

 

XV Hindu Religious and Charitable Endowments (Admn.) DepartmentAssistant Commissioner, Hindu religious and Charitable Endowments(Admn). Department, Nagercoil.The Executive Officer,Incorporated and Unincorporated Devaswam,Suchindrum.The Superintendent, Temple Car Training Centre, Nagercoil.

Jail Department.

The Superintendent, Sub-Jail, Nagercoil,

The Superintendent, Sub-Jail. Thuckalay.

The Superintendent, Sub-Jail, Kuzhithurai,

Medical Department. District Medical Officer, Nagercoil.

The Superintendent, Government T.B, Hospital, Nagarcoll.

Medical Officer. ESI Dispensary. Nagercoil,

Medical Officer, Govt. Hospital, Padmanabhapuram,

Medical Officer, Govt. Hospital, Aralvoimozhi,

Medical Officer, Govt. Hospital, Kuzhithurai,

Medical Officer, Govt. Hospital, Arumanai.

Medical Officer, Govt. Hospital, Bhoothapandy.

Medical Officer, Govt. Hospital, Colachel,

Medical Officer, Govt. Dispensary, Azhagappapuram.

Medical Officer, Govt. Dispensary, Kulasekaram.

Medical Officer, Govt. Dispensary, Kottaram.

Medical Officer, Govt. Dispensary, Ganapathlpuram.

Medical Officer, Govt. Dispensary, Kanniyakumari,

Medical Officer, Govt. Dispensary, Thengapattanam.

Medical Officer, Govt. Leprosy Central Unit, Vilavancode.

Medical Officer, Govt. Leprosy Central Unit, Thuckalay.

District Family Welfare Officer, Nagercoil.

Assistant Medical Officer, Govt. Ayurvedic Dispensary,Thirupathisaram.

Assistant Medical Officer, Govt. Ayurvedic Dispensaiy, Edalakudy.

The District Health Officer, Nagercoil.

District Siddha Medical Officer, Nagercoil.

XVill. Public Works Department

Executive Engineer, PWD (Anti-Sea Erosion), Nagercoil.

Executive Engineer, Kanniyakumari Division, Nagercoil.

Assistant Executive Engineer, School Buildings Sub-Division,Nagercoil.

Assistant Executive Engineer, Pattanamkal Sub-Division, Kuzhithi

Assistant Executive Engineer, Nagercoil Sub-Division, Nagercoil.

Assistant Executive Engineer, Thuckalay Sub-Division, Thuckalay.

Executive Engineer (Anandanar) Division, Nagercoil.

Assistant Executive Engineer, Kuzhithurai.

Executive Engineer (Project Investigation), Nagercoil.

Executive Engineer (Ground Water), Nagercoil.

Police DepartmentSuperintendent of Police, Nagercoil.

Additional Superintendent of Police, Prohibition and enforcementwing, Nagercoil.

Deputy Superintendent of Police, Nagercoil.

Deputy Superintendent of Police, Thuckalay.

Deputy Superintendent of Police, Kuzhithurai.

Deputy Superintendent of Police, Colachel.

Deputy Superintendent of Police, (Reserve Police), Nagercoil.

Employment and Training Department.

District Employment Officer, Nagercoil.

Registration Department.

District Registrar, Nagercoil.

District Registrar, (Audit), Nagercoil.

District Registrar, Marthandam.Sub-Registrar, Thuckalay.

Sub-Registrar, Verkilambi.

Sub-Registrar, Kollencode.

Sub-Registrar, Thovalai.

Sub-Registrar, Thiruvattar.

Sub-Registrar, Munchirai.

Sub-Registrar, Manavalakurichi.

Sub-Registrar, Rajakkamangalam.

Sub-Registrar, Palliyadi.

Sub-Registrar, Eraniel.

Sub-Registrar, Bhoothapandy.

Sub-Registrar, Edalakudy.

Sub-Registrar, Arumanai.

Sub-Registrar, Karungal.

Sub-Registrar, Kottaram.

Sub-Registrar, Colachel.

Sub-Registrar, Palukal.

Sub-Registrar, Vadaseri.

Joint Sub-Registrar-I, Registrar’s Office, Nagercoil.

Joint Sub-Registrar (G.ll), Marthandam.

Social Welfare Department.

  1. District Social Welfare Officer, Nagercoil.

Statistical Department.

  1. District Statistical Officer, Nagercoil.

Survey and Land Administration Department.

  1. Assistant Director of Survey and Land Records, Nagercoil.
  2. Transport Department.

Regional Transport Officer, Nagercoil.

Port Officer, Kanniyakumari.

Tourist Officer, Kanniyakumari.

XXVI. Treasuries and Accounts Department.

Treasury Officer, Nagercoil.

Sub-Treasury Officer, Thovalai.

Sub-Treasury Officer, Kalkulam.

Sub-Treasury Officer, Vilavancode.

Sub-Treasury Officer, Nagercoil.

Sub-Treasury Officer, Karungal.

Sub-Treasury Officer, Eraniel.

Khadi and Village Industries Department.

Assistant Director of Khadi, Nagercoil.

Assistant Director (Village Industries), Nagercoil.

Tamil Development Department.

Assistant Director, Tamil Development (Inspection), Nagercoil.

Animal Husbandry Department.

Assistant Director of Animal Husbandry, Nagercoil.

Assistant Director of Animal Husbandry, Thuckalay.

District Veterinary Officer, Nagercoil.

The Key Village Officer, Nagercoil.

Judiciary:

District judge, Nagercoil.

The Chief Judicial Magistrate, Nagercoil.

Sub-Judge, Nagercoil.

Sub-Judge, Padhmanabhapuram.

Sub-Judge, Kuzhithurai.

District Munsiff, Nagercoil.

District Munsiff, Kuzhithurai.

District Munsiff, Padhmanabhapuram.

Judicial -1 Class Magistrate, Padhmanabhapuram.

Judicial – II Class Magistrate, Eraniel.

Judicial -1 Class Magistrate, Kuzhithurai.

Additional Judicial -1 Class Magistrate, Kuzhithurai.

Additional Chief Judicial Magistrate, Nagercoil.

Special -1 Class Magistrate, Nagercoil.

Judicial – II Class Magistrate, Nagercoil Town.

Judicial – If Class Magistrate, Nagercoil Taluk.

Official Receiver, Nagercoil.

Government of Tamil Nadu Undertaking and Other Departments:

Managing Director, Arasu Rubber Corporation Limited, Nagercoil.

Managing Director, Arasu Rubber Corporation, Thuckalay.

Divisional Manager, Arasu Rubber Corporation Limited, Paraliar,Keeriparai – P.O.

Divisional Manager, Arasu Rubber Corporation Limited,Keeriparai – P.O.

Divisional Manager, Arasu Rubber Corporation Limited, Kalikesam,Keeripari.

Divisional Manager, Arasu Rubber Corporation Limited, Kallar

Division, Kodayar-P.O.

Divisional Manager, Arasu Rubber Corporation Limited, Kodayar

Divisional Manager, Arasu Rubber Corporation Limited,

Maruthamparai, Orunooramvayal, Arukani-P.O.

Divisional Manager, Arasu Rubber Corporation Limited, Mylar, ChitColony-P.O.

Divisional Manager, Arasu Rubber Corporation Limited, Chittar,Chittar Colony – P.O.

Divisional Development Officer, Tamil Nadu Adi-Dravidar Housing

Development Corporation Limited, Nagercoil.

Assistant Director of Ex-Servicemen’s Welfare, Kanniyakumari atNagercoil.

Assistant Engineer, Govt. Workshop for Vehicles, Public HealthDepartment, Nagercoil.

Automobile Engineer, Govt. Workshop, Nagercoil.

Assistant Director of Geology and Mines, Nagercoil.

REFERENCES

Sastri, K.A.N., A History of South India, 4th ed. 1976 Madras, p. 131.

Pillay, K.K., The Sucindram Temple 1953, University of Madras, p.35.

Sastri K.A.N., op.cit. p. 133.

Nagam Aiya, V., Travancore State Manual, Vol.I. Travancore Govt. Press1906, p.2.

Census of India, 1961, District Hand Books – Kanniyakumari District, p.2.Ibid,

Ambrose. S.P, One Man Committee – Report on District Revenue Administration 1980, Madras, Government of Tamil Nadu. d.31.

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