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10History of Land Revenue Management : From time immemorial, Kanniyakumari has been a part of Tamil Nadu integral with the Pandiya Kingdom. The changes in royal power were very few and of short durations. The Tamil system of land administration in which the State was the undisputed owner of all lands, was in vogue in Kanniyakumari also. The experiments and experiences of Travancore State, which had been well-established in Kerala proper, never became permanently forceful in Kanniyakumari.

PRESENT SYSTEM

Introduction of Ryotwari : After the formation of the district, the question of survey and the maintenance of the survey of records arose. The Government deputed an Assistant Director of the Survey and Land Records Department for investigation. Based on his recommendation, the Government ordered a survey of the whole district especially in view of the fact that the previous survey was done some sixty years back.

The system of Land Revenue administration prevailing in Kanniyakumari district was found to be entirely different from the one existing in the rest of the Tamil Nadu. In the ryotwari area of Tamil Nadu, the land revenue assessment was fixed and levied with reference to the intrinsic fertility of soil, taram, sort and location of the land. A flat rate of Rs. 2/- was being charged by the erstwhile Travancore Government in the transferred territory of Kanniyakumari district. In order to replace the flat levy of assessment by different rates of assessment with reference to.the nature of the soil, taram, sort and location of the land, the Tamil Nadu Transferred Territory (Ryotwari Settlement) Act, 1964 (Act 30/64) was passed.

For the purpose of effecting ryotwari settlement, re-survey was conducted in the area and it was completed in 1967. A settlement notification, incorporating the principles set out in the settlement notification for Tirunelveli district, was issued in G.O. Ms. No. 297, Revenue dated 14 February 1966. Under this notification, the lands were classified as dry, wet and manavari and the soils were divided into different classes and further into sorts. The rate of assessment was set out for each sort of soil. The soil classification work was done by theSettlement Inspectors on inspection ot each land and over

Settlement Deputy Tahsildar and thereafter by the Assistant Settkm Officer and Settlement Officer. The wet lands were dsiknHed reference to the commandability of the irrigation sources, Approximate assessment rates were fixed taking into account the taram, sort, a™ classification of the soil. Ryotwari rates of assessment have been brought into force in the transferred territory from Fasti 1380 onwards, after day publicity, by means of notifications.

The villages in Kanniyakumari district were found to be unwklety ar$ large and much difficulty was experienced in administering them. Seventeen villages which were very large were split up into two villages each and separate accounts were prepared. The total number ol Villages in Kanniyakumari district is now 81 as against 64 that existed previously.

In this area, there is a separate village service establishment comprising of Village Officers in the cadre of Assistants arid Junior Assistants. They maintain the accounts in a separate office tor each village. They are also liable to be transferred to other villages.

In the transferred territory of Kanniyakumari district, there were some special features of revenue payable by the ryots to the intermediaries mainly connected with the temples and the family ot Raah ot Travancore on certain items of work connected with the religious services. order to stop such payments, the following enactments were passed arm implemented in Kanniyakumari district and Shencottah taluk ot TtruneWe district.

The Kanniyakumari Sreepandaravaka lands (Abolition 2 Conversion into Ryotwari Act – 31/65): Sri Padmanabhaswarny ten of Tiruvanandapuram held certain lands known as ‘Sree Pandara’ lands’ in Kanniyakumari district. The income derived from ih$8& \ands used for the upkeep of certain temples maintained by Sri Padman swamy Devasthanam. This Act sought for the acquisition to the t over these lands with effect from the appointed day ivizMp 1965 and grant of ryotwari patta to the tenants alter payr compensation to the temples. All the applications received under i (1) of the Act have been disposed to payable In money or in kind or in both in respect of any land or a portion of revenue made in favour of religious, educational or charitable institutions or individuals. This Act sought to abolish this right with effect from the appointed date viz., 1 March 1965 on payment of tasdic allowance or compensation as the case may be. The work has been completed.

The Tamil Nadu Transferred Territory Jenmikanam Payment (Abolition Act) 39/64: The traditional land owners by name Jenmies were collecting certain amount called Jenmikanam from Kudiyans. This Act was passed to extinguish this right with effect from the appointed date viz. 16 March 1965 on payment of compensation collectable from the Kudiyans. In all the 265 cases, compensation and the tasdic allowance have been determined.

The Kanniyakumari Sreepadam lands (Abolition and Conversion Into Ryotwari) Act 11/73: This Act provides for the abolition of the intermediaries, by name, Sreepadam holders in Kanniyakumari district and to effect ryotwari settlement in the Sreepadam lands. The total area of Sreepadam lands in the district was 0.85 sq.mile approximately, spread over in 20 villages. The Sreepadam lands have been taken over and ryotwari settlement has been introduced in the entire area.

History of Land Surveys in Kanniyakumari District: The first Trigonometrical and Topographical surveys in India were done under the supervision of the then military officers of the British Army between 1800-1823.

The systems of survey in the former Travancore State are detailed below:

Topographical survey was done in Travancore and Cochin areas by lieutenants Ward and Connur between 1816-21. By this survey, the data made available were tables of triangulations, description of the districts, villages, forests production and passes. In their memoir, they have described the hill tribes of Travancore and published it in the Madras Journal of Literature and Science.

From 1884-1906 the methods adopted in cadastral survey operations in this area were:—

Simple triangulation of Tak system of chain survey.

Bare line and offset system.Triangles and offset system.

The records prepared by the different systems of survey were:

Individual survey field maps were prepared on scales 1H = 1 chain (1:792) and 1″ * 5 chains (1:3000) for each cadastral survey. Village maps were prepared on scale mile (1:3960) and in exceptional cases village maps were prepared on scale 8″ • 1 mile (1:7920). The accuracy in survey was reckoned at 1/1000 for main boundaries of units like village or taluk. In area, the difference allowed was one per cent and over this limit, any difference was treated as error in area. The basic unit adopted in area was acre and cents and in linear measurement the basic unit was links. For individual fields of cadastral surveys, no linear error appreciable on the scale of 16″=1 mile was tolerated, though during the course of maintenance of land records, certain limits of error were allowed.

In Travancore area, all the sub division points of cadastral survey fields were durably demarcated with granite stones.

The instruments used in Survey of the area were Everest and Transit type Theodolites with vernier reading upto 20 seconds or 30 seconds, Gunter’s chain, Cross staff, plane table and prismatic compass.

The circuit system of traverse was usually adopted for each village. Rectangular co-ordinates were computed for each village for plotting. The Traverse circuits were harmonised with reference to values obtained for village trijunctions. The main boundary of a village is connected usually with G.T. station and the traverse distances were checked with G.T. values. It may be noted here that there was evenly spread out net work of minor G.T. Triangulation for the Travancore-Cochin area and as such miles of distances had to be traversed to obtain connection to G.T. stations. The account was, therefore, accurate.

After the transfer of Kanniyakumari district to the State of Tamil Nadu with effect from 1 November 1956, that is the appointed day, I appointment of Survey Officers for this area to exercise powers was ordered in G.O. Ms. No. 3379, Revenue Department, dated 24 August 1957. As the area was not re-surveyed previously, the Government in their order Ms. No. 2789, Revenue Department, dated 1 August 1958 ordered Re-survey in the entire area of Kanniyakumari district. The Re-Survey operations in the entire area of Kanniyakumari district were completed and the records are now in maintenance.

Land Reforms: Land is an important source of production. Prevention of inequitable distribution of wealth has been accepted principle of our Government in order to ensure social and economic justice among our people. With this view, various measures of land reforms have been introduced after Independence and are being implemented to bring about a fair economic system which would also serve to maximise production and lead to national prosperity. Under the Prime Minister’s New Twenty Point Economic Programme 1986 also, ‘Enforcement of Land Reforms’ has been given the fifth place.

The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling of Land) Act 1961 (Act 58 of 1961) : This Act came into force with effect from 6 April 1960. In the beginning ceiling area for a family of five members was ‘ixed at 30 standard acres with an allowance of five standard acres for each additional member in the family, subject to overall ceiling area of 60 standard acres. Subsequently, the ceiling was reduced to 15 standard acres per family of five members with effect from, 15 February 1970. In addition to this, female members were allowed to hold 10 standard acres as Stridhana if they held such lands on the date of commencement of the Act. However, a family cannot hold more than 30 standard acres.

The lands found to be in excess of the ceiling area are acquired as surplus by Government, after following the procedure prescribed by the Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (FCL) Act, 1961, as amended. The surplus lands are being distributed among landless agricultural labourers and others according to the provisions contained in the Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Disposal of Surplus Land) Rules, 1965, as amended.

In Tamil Nadu, an extent of 170763 acres of land has been notified as surplus upto 30 November 1988. An extent of 143311 acres of land has been disposed of upto 30 November 1988. Out of this, an extent of 4041 acres has been handed over to the Tamil Nadu State Cooperative Farms Corporation Limited and an extent of 9,976 acres has been reserved under rule 13 of the Tamil Nadu’Reforms (DSL) Rules 1965, for public purposes.

In the district of Kanniyakumari alone, an extent of 409 acres of land was notified as surplus upto 31 October 1986. Out of this, an extent of 299 acres of land has been assigned to 244 eligible persons. Out of the above extent, an extent of 75 acres has been assigned to 47 persons belongingto scheduled castes and the remaining extent of 224 acres has been assigned to 197 persons belonging to other categories.

A target of 2,000 acres was fixed by Government for assignment of surplus land in Tamil Nadu State for 1986 87. Upto 31 October 1986, an extent of 1,161 acres had been assigned. An extent of 10 acres was fixed as target for Kanniyakumari district for the year 1986-87 and towards this target, an extent of eight acres had been assigned upto 30 November 1988.

The Tamil Nadu Cultivating Tenants (Payment of Fair Rent) Act, 1956 : Under the provisions of the Tamil Nadu Cultivating Tenants (Payment of Fair Rent) Act, 1956 and the Tamil Nadu Public Trusts (Regulation of Administration of Agricultural Lands) Act, 1961, the fair rent payable by the Cultivating tenant to the land-holder varied from 33 – per cent (of the normal gross produce for lands other than wet lands) to 40 per cent (of the normal gross produce for wet lands). National policy is that the fair rent due to the land holder from the tenants should be fixed so as not to exceed 25 per cent of the gross produce. The Tamil Nadu Cultivating Tenants (Payments of Fair Rent) Amendment Act, 1980 (Tamil Nadu Act 17 of 1980) and the Tamil Nadu Public Trusts (Regulation of j Administration of Agricultural Lands) Amendment Act, 1980 (Tamil Nadu Act 18 of 1980) have been enacted for reducing the fair rent to 25 per cent of the normal gross produce. The exemption from the fair rent law earlier applicable to sugarcane has also been withdrawn.

By the Tamil Nadu Act 4 of 1976, the provisions of the Tamil Nadu Cultivating Tenants (Payment of Fair Rent) Act, 1956 have been extended to Kanniyakumari district.

Tamil Nadu Public Trusts (Regulation of Administration of Agricultural Lands) Act, 1961 (Act 57/61): Public trusts cannot cultivate land in excess of 20 standard acres under pannai cultivation. If any trust personally cultivates lands in excess of 20 standard acres, it is directed by the Assistant Commissioner concerned to lease out the lands to eligible persons. Lands in excess of 20 standard acres under pannai cultivation by public trusts are to be leased out to bonafide persons. Under section 52of the Act, Government also accord exemption in respect’of certain lands held by certain public trusts from the provisions of this Act.

The fair rent payable by the tenants is similar to that laid down under the Tamil Nadu Cultivating Tenants (Payment of Fair Rent) Act, 1956, which, in all cases, is 25 per cent of the gross produce.

The Tamil Nadu Agricultural Lands (Records of Tenancy Rights) Act, 1969 (Tamil Nadu Act No. 10/69):

The twin objectives envisaged in the Five Year Plan were:

To remove such impediments towards agricultural production as arose from the agrarian structure inherited from the past, and

To eliminate all elements of exploitation and social injustice within (agrarian system and provide security to the tiller of the soil and secure equality of status and opportunity to all sections of the population.

To achieve the above two objectives, tenancy legislations were enacted in the State. Unless the tenants are identified, the benefits accrued from the various tenancy legislations would not reach the proper persons. Hence, it was thought necessary to find out the real tenants and record their rights in the land so as to enable them to secure maximum benefits from the Acts passed by the Government and financial credit for improving agricultural production. Hence, the Tamil Nadu Agricultural Lands Record of Tenancy Rights Act, 1969 was passed, The Act provides for the preparation and maintenance of Record of Tenancy Rights in respect of agricultural lands in the State. The Act was enacted with a view to prepare a complete record of tenancy rights to safeguard the interests of tenants. The Act has been implemented in the entire State, except certain villages in which settlement operations are pending. The record of Tenancy Rights duly approved by the Record Officer (Special Tahsildar) has been published both in Tamil Nadu Government Gazette and also in the respective District Gazette. A copy of this permanent record is kept safe in taluk offices and is also made available for perusal of the tenants. Certified copy of this record is also granted to the tenants, on application as and when necessary.

The approved Records of Tenancy Rights, prepared by the special staff and published in the Tamil Nadu Government Gazette, have been handed over to Taluk Officers for maintenance. The Taluk Officers (Tahsildars) have been notified as Record Officers under section 2 (7) of the Act and they are now implementing the Act. The Act containsprovisions for additions and deletions of particulars entered jn h approved Records of Tenancy Rights with provisions for appeal J revision. There were widespread complaints that the work relating to ^ preparation of Record of Tenancy Rights under the Tamil Nadu Agricultural Lands Record of Tenancy Rights Act 1969 has not done properly. With a view to improve the above work, the Government have taken a decision to associate non-officals in the work by constituting Advisory Committee.

Accordingly, by the Tamil Nadu Agricultural Lands Record of Tenancy Rights Amendment Act, 1981 (Tamil Nadu No.45/81), the Government have constituted Advisory Committees at taluk level for the purpose of advising the Record Officers in the discharge of their functions and in particular in the prepartion of Record of Tenancy Rights. The committee consists of one landless agricultural labourer belonging to Scheduled Castes or Scheduled Tribes, one tenant and three social workers. The said committees have been constituted in certain taluks of Dharmapuri, Tirunelveli, Tiruchi, Thanjavur, Madurai and Anna districts. The constitution of the above committees in the remaining taluks of the above districts and in other districts is under consideration. The Committees will be constituted in Kanniyakumari district also.

The term of office of the members of the above committees shall be three years from the date of their appointment and they are eligble for reappointment. They would continue as members until the appointment of their successors.

The Tamil        Nadu   Occupants of Kudiyiruppu (Protection fromEviction) Act,   1961,   (Act XXXVIII of            1961): This Act protects theinterests of persons occupying Kudiyirupus as on 31 March 1959 from eviction by landlords. Under section 3 (1) of the Act, no person occupying kudiyiruppu      shall     be evicted from            such Kudiyiruppu except inaccordance with provisions of the Act. The life of the Act was three years in the beginning. It was extended from time to time. Government then decided to re-enact this Act with retrospective effect from 29 November 1973 and Act 23 of 1975 was enacted accordingly.

The Tamil        Nadu   Occupants of   Kudiyiruppu (Conferment ofOwnership) Act. 1971 and The Tamil Nadu Rural Artisans (Conferment of Ownership of Kudiyiruppu) Act 1976: These Acts provide for the conferment of ownership rights on agriculturists, agricultural labourers and rural artisan for their house-sites. The homesteads (Kudiyiruppus) are assigned free of cost and free from allencumbrances. Compensation is paid by the Governent to the owner of the land. Alienation of the site for ten years is prohibited under the Kudiyiruppu Act of 1971. 180217 persons have been granted pattas up to 30 November 1988 in Tamil Nadu State, comprising of 99010 persons belonging to scheduled castes, 2209 persons belonging to scheduled tribes, 46973 persons belonging to backward classes and 32025 persons belonging to other communities.

In Kanniyakumari district, 944 persons were given patta till 30 November 1988 consisting of 269 persons of Scheduled Castes, 291 persons of Backward Classes and 434 persons of other Communities.

Similar action is being taken under the Tamil Nadu Rural Artisan (Conferment of Ownership of Kudiyiruppu) Act 1976. Under this Act, 407 persons have been granted pattas for the whole State upto 30 November 1988 of whom 43 persons belong to scheduled castes, 15 persons belong to scheduled tribes, 227 persons belong to backward classes and 122 persons belong to other communities.

Wages for employment in Agriculture Sector – The Minimum Wages Act, 1948 : The provisions of the Minimum Wages Act 1948 are being implemented with a view to fix minimum rates of wages for employment in agriculture and works ancillary thereto. This Act is being implementedd throughout the State of Tamil Nadu, except a few taluks covering East Thanjavur district, where the provisions of the Tamil Nadu Agricultural Labourers Fair Wages Act, 1969 are in force.

Collectors, District Revenue Officers, Revenue Divisional Officers, Taluk Tahsildars, Deputy Tahsildars and Revenue Inspectors have been appointed as Inspectors under section 19(1) of the Minimum Wages Act 1948. The review of progress in the implementation of the Act is made at the level of Government every month.

The rates of minimum wages of employment in agriculture and works ancillary thereto are fixed by Government from time to time. Government of Tamil Nadu have fixed the following rates with effect from 5 April 1983 as per G. O.Ms. No. 866, Labour and Employment Department, datedApril 1983.Government are giving wide publicity for implementation of these schemes. Peoples’, committees, Village committees, etc. function at village level for bringing to light not only the incidents of under-payments, but also other hurdles that come to notice in the implementation of the Minimum Wages Act.

The Government of Tamil Nadu has now constituted a committee to study the conditions of the agricultural labourers and to suggest revision to the minimum rates of wages. The committee has toured all important parts of the districts for discussion with the area representatives, the landowners, agricultural labourers, etc. and gathered statistics and other required materials from the representatives. The committee is to submit its report to Government shortly.

The Tamil Nadu Cultivating Tenants Protection Act, 1955: This Act provides that no cultivating Tenant shall be evicted from his holdings except for non-payment of rent, doing any act injurious to the land, failure to cultivate the crops, etc., Earlier; disputes under this Act were settled by Revenue Divisional Officers. But, tangible progress cannot be shown because of their multifarious functions. These functions are now being carried out by eleven (11) Revenue Courts presided over by Deputy Collectors constituted exclusively for this purpose. By Tamil Nadu Act 4/76, the provisions of the Tamil Nadu Cultivating Tenants Protection Act, 1955 have been extended to Kanniyakumari district.

Bhoodan and Gramdhan: Bhoodan and Gramdhan movement is a Socio-political movement with the Sarvodaya ideologies. Unlike other measures, it aims at removing inequalities in the ownership of land through non-violent and non-coercive means. Bhoodan is a voluntary act of land owners donating land for distribution among landless poor and Gramdhan is the conceptional expansion of Bhoodan with the aim of bringing the trusteeship of landed property (i.e.) transfer of ownership of land to village community.

Details of implementation: The Tamil Nadu Government through the enactment of the Bhoodan Act, 1959, gave statutory recognition to the Bhoodan and Gramdhan action and for administering and disposing of these lands coming under them.

In Kanniyakumari district, an extent of 90 acres of lands has been donated as Bhoodan in the following taluks:

The land donated to the Bhoodan movement by Thiru, Hussain Mankk**:. Trivandrum was distributed to 41 persons of all communities | Chiefly fishermen and the beneficiaries have planted coconut plants in their respective portions. There are about 1200 coconut plants in the lands and there is a well constructed under the Drought Relief Scheme in it. As the land lies in the sea coast, the plants require pure water. Now the Tamil Nadu Bhoodan Yagna Board, Madurai has programmed to develop the same under the Sarva Seva Farm using the water in the well by fitting a pump set and forming feeding channels to water the plants and to make it an ideal Farm under the Bhoodan Board, This work will be taken up soon under the direct supervision of Land Bhoodan Board officials.

The land donated to the Bhoodan movement by Thiru, K. Narayana Pillai, Neyyoor west was distributed to 11 persons and they have planted rubber trees in it.

An extent of 1 acre of Bhoodan land in R,S, No, 828 in Thiruvattar village was placed at the disposal of the Thiruvattar Panchayat Union //herein the Panchayat Union office has been constructed and functioning.

Similarly an extent of 0.05 cents in R.S. No. 851/IA of the same village was placed at the disposal of the Thiruvattar Panchayat Union for construction of a Balwadi.

Qramdhan:      Land    donated for Gramdhan in a Gramdhan villageincludes any land in such village donated for the Bhoodan Yagna and granted under sub section 1 of section 19 to the Sarvodaya Panchayat constituted for the village. Gramdhan village means any revenue village or villages or part or parts thereof in which (i) not less than two thirds of the number of persons residing or owning lands donated ail their lands for Gramdhan or.

not less than one half of the total extent of the lands owned by persons residing in such villages or villages or part or parts thereof is donated by persons residing or owning lands therein donating all their lands for Gramdhan and which the Government may, by notification, declare to be a gramdhan village. Sarvodaya Panchayat means the Sarvodaya Panchayat constituted for a gramdhan village.

In Kanniyakumari district the first and foremost village donated and declared under Gramdhan is Panikulam H/O. Kottaram and Kanniyakumari villages in Agasthiswaram taluk. In both these villages 36 pattadars in the hamlet signed the declaration forms No. 1 and the extent covered under Gramdhan is 9.64 acres. The inhabitants of this hamlet are mainly Harijans.

Gramdhan villages are given preference to other villages in executing developmental programmes. The Gramdhan village known as Narikulam Harijan Colony is accordingly given a preferential treatment and its requirements have been ascertained and furnished to the Panchayat Union Commissioner, Agasthiswaram for execution.Land Revenue : The land revenue was the mainstay of jrrwerfmm g recently This pride of place is no longer available to advent of other Items of revenue like Agricultural Income Tax and Commercial taxes. However indirectly, it is only the agricultunrt Land wfocti uutains our economy and it is but proper to speak of land revenue Ini m any general discussion of sources of revenue

The amount of land revenue collected in the district from Fasi 1391 to 1395 may be seen in the Statement 1.It may be seen that the amount of land revenue has more than doubled in fasli 1395 when compared with fasli 1391. The amount of Local Cess and Local Cess surcharge (which are prescribed proportions of the land revenue) collected in the district these years are also given in Statementsand 3.

The amount of land revenue has registered a further remarkable increase from fasli 1395 to 1397 as may be seen from the figures of fasti 1397 given belowThovalai Taluk Agasthiswaram Taluk Kalkulam Taluk Vilavankod talukDistrict totalAgricultural Income Tax: The Travancore Cochin Agricultural Income Tax Act. 1955 was in force in Kanniyakumari district till 31st March 1972, By the Amendment Act of 1973, the Tamil Nadu Agricultural Income Tax Act. 1955, was extended to Kanniyakumari district from  April 1972 and the Travancore Cochin Act, 1955 wan repealedThe Agricultural Income Tax is levied in each financial year on the total agricultural income of the previous year (account year) of every assessee who holds lands more than the exempted limit. The exemption limit wasstandard Acres from the assessment year 1972*73 to 1978-80. Though the main theme of the Act is to levy tax on agricultural income with a view to facilitate the agriculturists who do not maintain accounts, a provision for compounding, in other words for payment of lumpsum on the basis of holdings is available to the assessees holding non-plantation lands without any limit and to the assessees holding plantations lands upto a limit. The limit for compounding for plantations was 50 standard acres upto the assessment year 1978-79 and 100 standard acres from the assessment year 1979-80.

Certain cash crops cultivated from the lands and taram assessment of the lands was taken into account for the purpose of converting the lands into standard acres prior to 1 April 1979. From the assessment year80 onwards, the conversion to standard acre is computed on crop basis and also with reference to irrigation. Lands used exclusively for pasture and house sites are, however, excluded for the purpose of calculation of standard acres.

The bulk of the revenue under Agricultural Income Tax from Kanniyakumari district comes chiefly from rubber. Being next to Coimbatore and the Nilgiris district, Kanniyakumari district occupies the third place in the amount of Agricultural Income Tax assessment realised from districts in the State.

The Agricultural Income Tax Department in this district was being administered by two Agricultural Income Tax Officers in the cadre of Tahsildars. The Assistant Commissioner of Agricultural Income Tax, Tirunelveli in the cadre of Deputy Collectors being the Appellate Authority was having jurisdiction over this district till the assessment year 1979-80. Consequent on the re- organisation of the Agricultural Income Tax Department, the two posts of Agricultural Income Tax officers in the district have been upgraded to that of Deputy Collector and the post of Assistant Commissioner has been upgraded to that of District Revenue Officer and his Headquarters shifted to Kanniyakumari district in May 1980. Under the reorganised set up, the Assistant Commissioner, Nagercoil is having jurisdiction over the Kanniyakumari and Tirunelveli districts.

The total number of assessees in Nagercoil -1 and Nagercoil circle is as follows:-

Nagercoil -1 Nagercoil – II
(1) Compo­sition(2) Re- Mar- turn ginal (3) (4) To­tal(5) Compo­sition(6) Re­turn(7) Marginal(S) To­tal(9)
Plantation 339 138 69 546 346 52 145 543
Non – Plantation 103 9 43 155 48 4 41 93
Total 442 147 112 701 394 56 186 636
Gradation adopted and the income derived during the assessment yeai
1985-86:-
Nagercoil -1 Nagercoil – II
No. of Tax levied No. of Tax
cases cases levied
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
(RS. IN LAKHS)
10 to 20 Standard acres 112 148
20 to 25 II 133 0.72 93 0.05
25 to 30 II 100 0.61 74 0.07
30 to 35 II 95 0.42 74 0.11
35 to 40 II 34 0.36 41 0.08
40 to 45 II 35 0.47 38 0.10
45 to 50 II 38 0.64 14 0.03
50 and above 153 44.56 98 2.72
Total 700 47.78 580 3.16
(RS. IN LAKHS)
Upto Rs. 10,000/- 67 20 -
Rs. 10,001 to Rs. 15,000/- 23 0.69 14 0.03
Rs. 15.001 to Rs. 25,000/- 11 1.09 4 0.04
Rs. 25,001 to Rs. 40,000/- 15 1.79 4 0.15
Rs. 40,001 to Rs. 50,000/- 4 0.51 -
Rs. 50,001 to Rs. 1,00,000/- 11 2.84 2 -
Above Rs. one lakh 13 37.91 12 43.81
Total 144 44.83 56 44.03
The income derived under Agricultural Income Tax during the
assessment year 1977-78 to 1985-86
Nagercoil-1 Nagercoil - II
AssessmentYear Total TaxNo. of levied

cases

(1) (2) ft)

‘ “ /DQ IN 1 Ak

Taxcollec­ted

(4)

Total No. of cases (5) Taxlevied(6)

(RS IN

Taxcollec­ted

(7) .

LAKHS)

No. of cases (2)

Taxlevied(3)

No. of cases (4)

Tax

 

13.2117.9234.09

37.61

51.89

47.37

33.80

20.77

41.01

641643655

675

672

671

646

632

636

15.0629.8935.96

39.98

41.68

41.22

45.47

10.66

47.94

11.5517.5334.04

45.21

40.45

37.19

29.69

6.71

40.61

28.0050.0946.42

46.12

56.21

53.62

64.00

23.20

47.79

549544502

527

546

542

581

577

577

787980

81

82

83

84

85

86

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Government in then Qrdor Ms No. 696, Prohibition and frriss (M) Oeparlment, dated 13 Juna 1986 have extended the licence period of lockly ihopi beyond 30 September 1961, la. up lo 31 Decemeber 1966 and suitably amended tha Tamit Nadu Toddy and Arrack shops (Disposal In Auction) Rules, 1961 and Tamil Nadu Toddy Rules, 1961 The number of toddy shops, notified foe this current period, licensed and kist fetched also may be seen in the Statement-4,

Indian Made Foreign Liquor: The Tamil Nadu Liquor (License and permit) Rules, 1961 enabled the conduct of Indian Mack; Foreign Ugoor retail business in this district during the year 1981 82 Among tie 27 Fu licenses Issued during the year 1961 62. Five licences have been cancelled subsequently due to the ineguianties noticed m the busiriess During tha year 1966 87, 17 FU licenses were issued for 39 shops

Medicinal and Totlal Preparation: Tha following Rules are lo be obeerved for laaua of licenses under venous categories.

(I) Tamil Nadu Medicinal and Toilet Preparations (ED) Rules 1&56 fit) Tamil Nadu Spirituous Preparations Control Rules 1964Tamil Nadu Narcotic Drug Rules 1955. pv) Tamil Nadu Denatured Spirit Rutos 1058.

(v) Tamil Nadu Rectiftad Spirit Rulas.

  1. M) Tamil Niidu Molasses Control Rules.

(vi) Tamil Nadu Chlorohytrate Rulas.

Thorn are 28 fetal and 25 wholesale licensees (S.P. XIV licence)  this district undor the I nrnil Nadu Spirituous Preparations Control RulesUnder the Madlolnal and Toilet Preparations Rules, 1956, there are 33L2 Licenses nnd 27 L3 – licences in this district. “L2″ licences are Issued to manufacture medicinal and toilet preparations and “L3″ licences are Issued to Ayurvedic or Siddha or Unani practitioners to manufacture preparations containing self generated alcohol for dispensing to patients and not for trade,Undei the Tamil Nadu Denatured Spirits and Varnish (French polish) Rules 1959, DLI, DL2 and DL4 licences are issued. There is only one DU licence and 28, DL2 licences issued in this district. Three DL4 licences have been issued in this district.648 RL licences have been issued under Tamil Nadu Rectified Spirit Rules, 1989 and 3 ML 4/6 licences have been issued under the Tamil Nadu molasses Control Rules.

Commercial Taxes: At the time of States’ reorganisation only four offices were functioning In this district, viz.,:

Deputy Commercial Tax Office,        Kuzhithurai

Deputy Commercial Tax Office,        Thuckalay

Deputy Commercial Tax Office,        Nagercoil

Commercial Tax Office, NagercoilPrior to 31st August 1982, these offices were under Tirunefvefi qt District which was supervised by the Assistant Commissioner (CT Tirunelveli. But from 1st September 1982, the administration of these offices is being supervised by the Assistant Commissioner (c Nagercoil, due to bifurcation of the Tirunelveli C.T. District into two C T districts namely Tirunelveli and Nagercoil. The following offices are no* functioning in this district from 1st September 1982

STATEMENT-5

Amount of Commercial Taxes collected in Kanniyakumari districtfrom 1982-83 to 1985-86.

1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
( RUPEES IN LAKHS)
TNGST 237.73 272.92 316.63 381.43
CST 26.10 42.69 37.76 41.84
TNET 47.80 45.58 62.94 74.36
TNTLHLH 0.29 0.46 0.42 0.42
Total 411.92 361.65 417.75 498.05

 

STATEMENT – 6 Amount of revenue realised under various Heads in Marthandam Registration District 1981-82 to 1985-86.

STATEMENT – 7

Registration Department – Revenues – Kanniyakumari Registration District -1981-82 to 1985-86

Items of Revenue (1) 1961-82(2) 1982-83(3) Years1983-84(4) 1984-85(5) 1985-86(€)
(IN THOUSANDS)
Stamps 754a 50 7257.50 7525.20 8520 80 12246 10
Stamps I Registration 1469.70 154020 160540 1711.40 2084.00
Tami Nadu Chit Funds
Act 1961 100.40 18030 164.20 10680 34 00
Societies Registration Act 5.60 5.90 &20 860 7.30
Partnership Act 0.90 1.60 3,70 4 70 4.10
Hindu Marriages Act 050 1.10 140 130 tJZO
Special Marriages Act 0.01 006 002 9.02 aoe
Births and Deaths and 19.70 6310
Marriages Act 1969
Others . -
Total 912061 8986.66 9309.12 1047332 14440 62

 

Commercial Tax Office, Nagercoil (Town)

Deputy Commercial Tax Office, Nagercoil (Rural)

Deputy Commercial Tax Office, Nagercoil (Tower Junction)

Deputy Commercial Tax Office, Thuckalay

Deputy Commercial Tax Office, Kuzhithurai

Deputy commercial Tax Office, Nagercoil

(Enforcement Wing) [Under the control of Assistant, Commissioner. (Enforcement) Tirunelveli.

Assistant Commissioner (CT) Nagercoil (Administrative Office)

In addition, two checkposts are functioning one at Kaliakkavilai and another at Chungankadai.

In this C.T. District there are about 5714 dealers registered under TNGST Act 1959 out of which 2708 dealers are paying Sales Tax. The remaining dealers are not liable to pay tax. There are also 32 cinema theatres in the district. The revenue realised under all Acts in this district by the department may be seen in Statement -5.

Registration revenues: After States reorganisation, Kanniyakumari District Registrar’s office was started on 2 January 1957 with nineteen Sub-Registrar’s offices in the district. On 1 August 1978, Marthandam District Registrars’ Office was started with nine Sub-Registrars’ Offices in Kalkulam and Vilavancode taluks. The remaining ten Sub-Registrars’ offices in Agasthiswaram, Thovalai and Kalkulam taluks remained with Kanniyakumari District Registrar. A Sub-Registrar’s office was started at ^adaseri on 15 September 1980 and another was started at Thovalai onJuly 1981. The revenue derived in the registration districts of Marthandam and Kanniyakumari from 1981-82 to 1985-86 may be seen n Statements-6 and 7 respectively.

Motor Vehicles Tax:   The      receipts under Motor Vehicles tax in

Kanniyakumari district from 1977-78 to 1985-86 may be seen below:

Year(V Amount(2)(RUPEES IN THOUSANDS)
1977-78 13664
1978-79 15433
1979-80 24903
1980-81 24718
1981-82 17400
1982-83 18255
1983-84 19941
1984-85 22627
1985-86 28363
Forest revenues: The main items of forest revenue in Kanniyakumari
district are timber like teak rosewood, miscellaneous timber like Aini,
Venteak etc, thinned teak poles, firewood, cloves and other minor forest
Products. Rubber is also another important source of income in
Kanniyakumari district. The management of rubber plantation is under
The control of the Arasu Rubber Corporation.
The amount of forest revenues realised from 1980-81 to 1985-86 are
furnished below:
Year Rupees
m (2)
(IN THOUSANDS)
1980-81 9895
1981-82 3603
1982-83 1873
1983-84 3505
1984-85 12985
1985-86 12163

 

Central Excise: Kanniyakumari district is one of the small district Tamil Nadu. When there was Central excise duty on tobacco, the distr ^ was quite active from central excise point of view. After abolition of on tobacco the central excise duty from this district has dwindled considerably. At present one Central Excise Range office is functioning at Nagercoil.

There are two spinning mills, four tread rubber units, one wires and cable unit, 120 match factories, seven tea estates, 17 package tea units and 55 biri units in Kanniyakumari district paying excise duty. There are also small scale units fully exempted from excise, duty existing in this range and these units are also exempted from licensing control.

Amount of Central excise revenue realised in Kanniyakumari district from 1981-82 to 1985-86 may be seen below:

Year(1) Revenue (Actuals) (2)
(RUPEES IN THOUSANDS)
1981-82 3001.3
1982-83 3730.2
1983-84 4774.1
1984-85 4284.4
1985-86 4467.8

 

Income Tax: The jurisdiction of the Income-Tax officer, Nagercoil extends to the entire district of Kanniyakumari. As on 30 September 1987, there are 2426 Income tax assessees and 380 Weath-Tax assessees and 76 Gift-tax assessees are borne on the register of Income-tax Office Nagercoil.

 

Law and Order is, both historically and empirically, a concern of all citizens. Historically, the principle goes back to the pre-historic times, when society was in the formative stage. Maintenance of peace and responsibility of ensuring peaceful living of the people are the prime concern of the police with who is entrusted the maintenance of law and order. The other allied factor which goes pari passu with these two is justice, of which the system of criminal justice is crucial to the suppression of crime. The combination of these i.e. law and order, and justice would attempt to form a ‘ less crime’ society. If we find a complete harmony in a district, then we would be able to conclude that these two systems i.e., the Police and Judiciary function perfectly.

The East India Company which held the country tor a very long period adopted the police system according to their taste in the conquered territories to maintain law and order. The police did not encounter any major upheaval in the beginning of the 19th century. In the districts, police organisation was deplorable and haphazard.

To the deplorable condition of the police system and its administration in the beginning of the nineteenth century, the administration of criminal justice could be added. Various laws enacted created confusion in the minds of the general public. People experienced untold sufferings because of the complicated and conflicting procedures adopted in the courts. Experience and added problems made the British Government realise the imperative need for reorganising the judicial administration and making it more agreeable to the minds of the people.

The erstwhile Madras Government was directed by the Court of Directors to remodel its police on the lines of Punjab and Sindh. The erstwhile Madras Government separated administrative set up of police from the revenue as recommended by the Torture Commission and placed the police under a British Officer and recognised the police as a law enforcing independent agency for the prevention and detection of crime.

The revolt of 1857 spurred the Government to enact a series of codes with a view to obviating the distress and discontent caused by theexistence of various kinds of laws in the country. The Government had undergo a series of experiments before evolving into a distinct system judicial administration. Several major changes took place in the later |g| of the 19th century as a result of the revolt of 1857. This was the condition prevailing in the erstwhile Madras Presidency.

The present Kanniyakumari district which came into existence in 195$ was a part of the erstwhile Travancore-Cochin state which was under the rule of Maharajas. Therefore, the British laws were not in force there.in the early part of the 19th century, nor was the police force modelled on British lines then.

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